Irregular menstruation and its causes |

Menstrual irregularities, such as menstrual periods that do not come on time, menstrual cycles that are not within the normal range, or bleeding that is longer or shorter than normal, are called menstrual irregularities. The causes of irregular menstruation are diverse, and the improvement and treatment methods differ depending on the cause, and treatment with medicine and Chinese medicine is also performed.

In addition, if the cause is a gynecological disease, treatment is required, so it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible. Here, we will explain in detail the definition and types of irregular menstruation, treatment methods, and guidelines for consultation.

Find out in this article

  • What is menstrual irregularity? why does it happen
  • What types of menstrual irregularities are there?
  • Is there any cure or remedy?
  • Can it be cured with medicine or Chinese medicine?
  • I'm not sure if it's some kind of disease, but is there a way to tell?

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What is menstrual irregularity?

A normal menstrual cycle usually lasts 25 to 38 days, with bleeding periods lasting about 3 to 7 days. A large disturbance in this regular cycle or bleeding period is called irregular menstruation.

However, the menstrual cycle is not necessarily the same every time, and there is no problem if it deviates from the usual cycle by about a week.

If you are not pregnant and have not had your period for months, or if your cycles are irregular each time, or are much shorter or longer, it is likely that you have irregular menstruation.

Definition of normal and irregular menstruation

Menstruation is defined as "normal menstruation", which means that the menstrual cycle, the degree of fluctuation, and the number of days in which bleeding continues are normal. The definition of normal menstruation is "the menstrual cycle is between 25 and 38 days, the fluctuation is within about 6 days, and the number of bleeding duration is about 3 to 7 days." When this definition is not met, it is called "irregular menstruation."

For example, if menstruation has not occurred for 3 months or more, if the number of bleeding days is 10 days or more, if the cycle is 25 days or 36 days, it can be said that menstruation is irregular. increase.

Types of menstrual irregularities

There are different types of menstrual irregularities. The main types are as follows.

(1) Frequent menstruation: Menstruation with a short cycle of 24 days or less
(2) Oligomenorrhea: menstruation with a prolonged cycle of 39 days or longer
③ Prolonged menstruation: A menstrual period lasting more than 8 days
④ Short menstruation: Menstruation lasting less than 2 days

If this condition continues for about 3 months, it is judged to be abnormal. In addition to this, there are various types of irregular menstruation, such as oligomenorrhea (menstruation that is extremely small), amenorrhea (no menstruation for more than 3 months), and irregular menstruation before menopause .


Menstruation with a menstrual cycle of 39 days or longer is called oligomenorrhea. The symptoms are various, such as a sudden increase in the length of the cycle, which was previously average, or a return to the previous cycle. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance of female hormones or an imbalance of female hormones.
However, in some cases, it takes longer for the follicles to grow (the cycle becomes longer), so there may be no problem if there are no major fluctuations from cycle to cycle.

If ovulation can be confirmed even with oligomenorrhea, pregnancy and childbirth are possible without problems.

frequent menstruation

A short menstrual cycle of less than 24 days is called polymenorrhea. If you have a cycle of 24 days or less, you may have two menstrual cycles in a month.

Like oligomenorrhea, there are many cases where there is no problem. In the case of corpus luteum insufficiency, it is desirable to undergo treatment at a gynecology department if pregnancy and childbirth are desired.

Prolonged menstruation

A menstrual period lasting more than 8 days is called "prolonged menstruation". There are various causes, and there is a possibility that it takes a long time to discharge due to excessive menstruation with a large amount of bleeding in the first place, bleeding other than menstruation, and irregular bleeding occurring following menstruation.

short menstrual period

Menstruation that lasts for less than 2 days is called "hypermenorrhea". There are many cases of oligomenorrhea, in which the amount of menstrual blood is abnormally low. If the uterus itself is underdeveloped due to insufficient female hormone secretion, if the uterine lining is thin, if ovulation is not successful due to hormonal imbalance, or if the secretion of luteinizing hormone is insufficient, luteal insufficiency can occur. There is a possibility that

Causes of irregular menstruation

If you are neither pregnant nor menopausal and you do not have menstruation, it is highly likely that you have irregular menstruation. The most common cause of irregular menstruation is an imbalance of female hormones that regulate the female body and the menstrual cycle .

Factors that cause hormonal imbalance are considered to be various factors such as stress, fatigue, and excessive diet . During puberty and menopause, the secretion of female hormones is often unstable.


If menstruation does not come regularly, there is a possibility that you are pregnant besides menstrual irregularities. If you think you might be pregnant, take a pregnancy test if you haven't had your period yet.

Also, some women misunderstand irregular bleeding, which is common in early pregnancy, as menstruation and do not realize they are pregnant.

Implantation bleeding, which occurs around the fourth week of pregnancy, is not pathologic and occurs when the fertilized egg implants in the lining of the uterus.

It is characterized by the fact that it is difficult to distinguish from menstrual bleeding because it occurs at the same time as the expected date of menstruation.

The color of implantation bleeding varies from person to person, and varies from person to person, such as pink, fresh blood, and brown blood. The difference between implantation bleeding and menstrual blood is that blood clots may appear during menstruation, whereas implantation bleeding does not.

In addition, implantation bleeding is characterized by a smaller amount than menstrual bleeding and a short period of 1-2 days to 3 days at the longest.


During menopause, your menstrual cycle may become irregular. In addition, the amount of menstrual blood also changes, and the amount of menstrual blood may suddenly decrease or increase, or bleeding may continue. Hormonal fluctuations increase due to weakening of ovarian function, the timing of ovulation becomes unstable, menstruation is delayed and the endometrium thickens and bleeding increases, the condition of the endometrium becomes unstable and blood vessels are exposed on the surface. may cause heavy or irregular bleeding.
Also, even if menstruation occurs, it is often anovulatory menstruation without ovulation.

Hormonal imbalance due to stress

Normally, menstruation is controlled by female hormones such as ovarian hormones and progesterone. These female hormones are secreted by three organs, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the ovaries, and if they are functioning normally, menstruation will occur.

The hypothalamus is an organ that is susceptible to stress. Mental stress at home, work, school, etc. can disturb the function of the hypothalamus , which can lead to hormonal imbalance and irregular menstruation.

Fatigue, strenuous exercise, and unreasonable dieting also affect the balance of female hormones.

How to deal with irregular menstruation

There are various factors that cause irregular menstruation, and it is important to find a remedy that suits you because the improvement method and coping method change depending on your age, environment, and cause. In some cases, it can be treated with medicine or Chinese medicine, but in other cases, it can be cured simply by improving lifestyle habits, such as reducing stress and overwork and leading a regular life .

drug use

Menstrual irregularities can also be treated with drugs or pills. If you want to get pregnant, you can use fertility drugs such as clomid. If it is difficult to ovulate with Clomid alone, an HCG preparation may be injected to promote ovulation.

If you don't want to get pregnant, you can use LEP (low-dose estrogen-progestin), a so-called pill, to cause regular menstruation. In addition to the type of medicine that causes menstruation every month, recently there is also a type of pill that causes menstruation once every three months.

Use of Chinese medicine

Kampo medicine is a type of medicine that regulates the entire constitution rather than directly regulating female hormones, and its effect on regulating irregular menstruation is relatively weak, and it is rare for Kampo medicine alone to regulate menstruation. On the other hand, it is often effective in improving symptoms associated with irregular menstruation, and is often used in combination with other treatments. There are Kampo medicines with different effects depending on the type of irregular menstruation, so I will introduce the representative ones.

<When the menstrual cycle becomes longer>

Unkeito: Used for people who are sensitive to cold and have little physical strength and dry skin and lips. Specifically, it improves irregular menstruation, menstrual pain, coldness and pain in the legs, hot flashes, and frostbite. There is a report that it was effective in improving ovulatory function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which causes irregular menstruation.

Toki shakuyakusan: A Chinese herb that is effective for symptoms such as sensitivity to cold, anemia, and prolonged menstrual bleeding. In order to prevent anemia and coldness, it is important to eat a well-balanced diet and get enough sleep.

Keishibukuryogan: Improves symptoms of cold, menstrual pain, headache and dizziness caused by poor blood circulation. In order to prevent the cold, it would be a good idea to change your living environment, such as refraining from cold drinks.

<When the menstrual cycle becomes shorter>

Kamishoyosan (Kamishoyosan): It is effective for symptoms such as a weak body and getting tired easily, catching colds easily, sweating easily, and mental symptoms such as irritability and anxiety. Specifically, it is suitable for cold hands and feet, hot flashes, menstrual pain, headache, stiff shoulders, malaise, insomnia, neurosis, etc. It is also used for menopausal disorders, autonomic imbalance, and premenstrual tension. , Take rest to avoid overwork, and try to eat a well-balanced diet.

Toukakujokito: Used to improve headaches, constipation, dizziness, stiff shoulders and irregular menstruation in those who tend to be constipated due to hot flashes. To prevent constipation, it is important to drink plenty of water, avoid dry and spicy foods, and avoid accumulating stress.

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use of the pill

Low-dose pills are medicines that combine the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, and artificially create a menstrual cycle by taking in female hormones from outside the body. Depending on the medicine, there is a type that takes a rest for about a week, and a type that continues to take a placebo, but with either medicine, bleeding will occur about once a month in the same way as menstruation. Recently, there is a type of pill that causes bleeding once every three months, and it is possible to use it according to your lifestyle. Side effects of the pill can include headaches, nausea, irregular bleeding, and swelling. In many cases, the side effects disappear when you gradually get used to it and finish taking 1 to 3 courses. Although less frequent, thrombosis has been reported as a side effect, so caution should be exercised in those who are prone to thrombosis.

Possibility of irregular menstruation and illness

Irregular menstruation is caused by abnormalities in hormone secretion, and the following diseases cause abnormalities in hormone secretion: If menstrual irregularities are left untreated, these diseases may get worse.

Irregular menstruation due to stress: Stress puts a strain on the hypothalamus in the brain, which can interfere with the secretion of female hormones and cause irregular menstruation. Although it may be a temporary abnormality, amenorrhea may continue, and if it continues for more than 3 months, the return may worsen.

Luteinism: A condition in which the postovulatory corpus luteum does not secrete enough hormones to cause secretory changes in the lining of the uterus. It can cause infertility, miscarriage, and irregular bleeding.

Polycystic ovary syndrome: A condition in which many small follicles are produced in the ovaries, but it is difficult for them to grow into large follicles, which in turn makes it difficult for ovulation to occur . It is characterized by ovulatory disorders and prolonged menstrual cycles. Ovulation is damaged, which causes infertility, and male hormones also increase, which makes symptoms such as acne more likely to occur.

These pathologies are only a part of the causes, and the treatment methods differ depending on the actual pathology, so please consult a gynecologist for details.

Also read the following articles
Learn how to balance your hormones

If you suspect an illness, go to a gynecologist

Irregular menstruation is often caused by everyday stress, inappropriate lifestyle habits such as dieting, and hormonal fluctuations that occur at specific times such as puberty and menopause. It's not temporary, it can be physical. In the latter case, it may lead to infertility, so if irregular menstruation is prolonged, please consult a gynecologist as soon as possible. At that time, the basal body temperature chart will be important information to understand the presence or absence of ovulation and the function of the corpus luteum, so it is a good idea to manage the basal body temperature on a daily basis.


Irregular menstruation is mainly caused by the disturbance of female hormone balance due to the accumulation of inappropriate lifestyle habits such as fatigue, stress, and excessive dieting. It may be improved by maintaining a regular lifestyle, eating well-balanced meals, getting enough sleep, and living a stress-free life. If you can't get rid of it even by improving your lifestyle, see a gynecologist to check for the presence of illness and the cause, and then receive appropriate treatment such as pills and ovulation induction drugs.

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